Skills for Medical Sciences
The aim of this module is to provide the student with basic skills required for laboratory research in the field of applied medical sciences. The module will be both theoretical and applied: the student will be instructed in methods essential for data acquisition and analyses but will also actively participate in the laboratory, using broadly applicable experimental techniques. They will also develop skills that are not experimental techniques themselves,
but are nevertheless fundamental to the scientific process, such as `lab math,¿ sourcing information, referencing, ethics and health and safety.
Sgiliau ar gyfer Gwyddorau Meddygol
Nod y modiwl hwn yw darparu¿r sgiliau sylfaenol sydd eu hangen ar fyfyrwyr ar gyfer ymchwil labordy ym maes y gwyddorau meddygol cymhwysol. Bydd y modiwl yn cynnwys gwaith damcaniaethol a chymhwysol: caiff y myfyriwr ei hyfforddi mewn dulliau sy¿n hanfodol ar gyfer caffael data a¿i ddadansoddi, ond bydd hefyd yn cymryd rhan weithredol yn y labordy, gan ddefnyddio¿n fras y technegau arbrofol perthnasol. Byddant hefyd yn datblygu sgiliau nad ydynt yn dechnegau arbrofol yn eu hunain, ond sydd er hynny, yn sylfaenol i¿r broses wyddonol, megis, 'mathemateg y labordy¿, cyrchu gwybodaeth, cyfeirnodi, moeseg ac iechyd a diogelwch.
Introduction to Toxicology: The Dose Makes the Poison
We are surrounded by substances that may do our bodies harm i.e. poisons. The harm these poisons causes depends on our exposure - the dose. The science of toxicology, a discipline that crosscuts biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and
medicine, is based on the principle that the dose makes the poison.
This module will provide you with an introduction to toxicology and how dose-response relationships relate to the physiological effects of toxic substances. You will explore how they produce cellular and chemical changes that cause tissues and organs to malfunction.
You will learn how the structure and function of these tissues can be affected to varying degrees and begin to understand how tissue may repair itself and when the damage is reversible, permanent or fatal.
You will also learn how we use toxic substances to our advantage in both the laboratory and within the clinic.
Doctors, patients & the goals of medicine
The educational intention of the module is to allow the student to consider the contemporary practice of Medicine within the United Kingdom. This will include understanding the professional regulation, financial constraints and societal and personal challenges, within which medicine and other healthcare activities are practiced.
Pharmacology: Dynamics and Kinetics
Pharmacology is the science of how drugs act on the body and how the body acts on drugs. Pharmacology investigates the chemical and physical properties of drugs, how those properties confer actions on living tissues and how those actions affect health and disease. In this module, students will examine how the body interacts with drugs (pharmacokinetics) and how the drug interacts with the body (pharmacodynamics). Students will learn how the body absorbs, distributed, metabolizes and excretes drugs as well as complex nature of how drugs produce their beneficial, or harmful, effects in living organisms.
Pharmacogenomics: Genes on Drugs
Pharmacogenomics is the study of how a person¿s genomic information can affect their response to drugs and therapeutics, predicting if a patient will respond badly, too much or too little to a chosen therapy. This is the underlying principle of `personalised medicine¿, ensuring the right patient, gets the right drug, at the right time.
Within this module, students will look at the principles of pharmacogenomics, namely the variation in genomics sequences from patients to patients which can alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutics. In this module, students will learn about the role of pharmacogenomics in chemotherapy, gastrointestinal drugs, cardiovascular drugs, respiratory drugs, neurological drugs and drugs used in the treatment of infectious disease.
Advances in Toxicology: Pick Your Poison
We are surrounded by substances that may do our bodies harm i.e. poisons. The harm these poisons causes depends on our exposure - the dose. The science of toxicology, a discipline that crosscuts biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, is based on the principle that the dose makes the poison.
This module is compulsory for BSc Medical Pharmacology students and acts as a follow on from PM-147 Introduction to Toxicology: The Dose Makes the Poison.
This module will provide students with the opportunity to expand their toxicology knowledge and apply it to three distinct fields within toxicology; analytical toxicology, forensic toxicology and clinical toxicology.
Students will learn about the experimental procedures and techniques we employ for the isolation and detection of compounds as well as their effects on biological systems. Students will then learn about the role of employing these methods in the field of forensic toxicology and the role of toxicology within the legal system.
Within the module, students will also learn about the role of clinical toxicology and patient presentation following poisoning events and the techniques we have for detection and treatment of toxicology within the clinical setting.
The module provides an understanding of the subcellular organelles, the regulation of their biosynthesis and how
impairment of this process leads to disease.
Being a Medical Scientist
Much of a scientist¿s career is spent writing and speaking about science. The aim of this module is to give students a higher level experience of what being a lead researcher is like, away from the lab bench. Drawing on core knowledge from other modules, students will refine their oral and written communication and learn what leadership skills are needed to succeed in modern science. They will also be challenged to consider ethical aspects of research, including new technologies and the use of animal and human subjects. The module will be highly interactive, taught using informal lectures interspersed with students working in groups. Assessments will include an ethics application, a group Journal Club presentation on a published, peer-reviewed research article, and a mock grant proposal.
Advances in Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the science of how drugs act on the body and how the body acts on drugs.
Pharmacology investigates the chemical and physical properties of drugs, how those properties confer actions on living tissues and how those actions affect health and disease. In this module, students will build upon their previous pharmacology knowledge and look more in depth at how the body interacts with drugs (pharmacokinetics) and how the drug interacts with the body (pharmacodynamics).
In this module, students will study the drugs and therapeutics currently used in clinical practise and the underlying mechanisms of action of these drugs. Students will learn about the beneficial, therapeutic effects of drugs, but also some negative consequences of drug administration, such as toxicity, addiction and microbial drug-resistance. Additionally, students will learn about the cutting-edge therapies currently in development for treating disease.
The aim of this module is to provide a capstone experience to students¿ learning, through participating in their own enquiry-based research project. The project may be laboratory or non-laboratory based, but it will always involve a research question that is drawn from the literature, and focused on a topic relevant to the life sciences. It will ask a novel research question and involve the critical analysis of research findings. Students will refine their oral and written communication skills to a graduate level through creating an introductory presentation on the project background, and a written dissertation and oral presentation on their research conclusions.
Cancer remains a significant cause of mortality in the modern world. Current and emerging chemotherapies, and the rationale, experimental, and clinical evidence of the pathways or molecules targeted will be explored. Causes of treatment-related side effects, and the therapies used to address these, will be discussed along with the mechanisms that lead to anti-cancer drug resistance.
Drug Development and Regulation
This is an applications and project management driven module designed to provide the student with an introduction to drug development and the key role of separation science and mass spectrometry within the pharmaceutical industry. This module will introduce Good Laboratory, Clinical and Manufacturing Practice (GLP, GCP, GMP), assay validation (as requested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)), the need and implementation of SOPs with particular focus on the pharmaceutical and medical industries, and how these correlate with stringent quality control procedures and health and safety existing due to current legislation. The ethical principles of research, including clinical trials and animal research (design, implementation and reporting) will be outlined, as well as the essential nature of the principles of reduction, refinement and replacement for the use of animals in research. Students will also be able to characterize and map the path of a drug from administration, to metabolism and elimination, for critical evaluation of drug design.
The Neuroscience of Learning, Memory and Cognition
How do we perceive and make sense of the world?
How do we learn?
Why do we learn?
What happens when these things go wrong?
Learning, memory and cognition will be explored from a neuroscience perspective. We will consider the functional anatomy of the brain, and medical situations which affect learning, memory and cognition.
Genomics of Common and Rare Inherited Disease
This module will provide an introduction to the clinical presentation and manifestations of rare inherited and common diseases, and considers the patient and family perspective with respect to the role and impact of genomics. It reviews traditional and current strategies and techniques used to identify genes responsible for both common multifactorial and rare inherited diseases.
The module is for students to build on their previous knowledge, skills and experience by undertaking a laboratory based or suitable non-laboratory based project on a specific subject related to genomics.
Pharmacogenomics & Stratified Healthcare
Pharmacogenomics and stratified health care ensure that healthcare professionals offer the right treatment, for the right person, at the right time is a fast-developing area.
`Personalised medicine¿ is the buzzword of the moment, with advances in pharmacogenomic testing enabling more effective, targeted therapies to patients in the field of asthma, analgesia, oncology and beyond. Continued understanding of the genomic basis of drug response will reduce drug-related adverse effects, save costs, and ensure a better therapeutic outcome.
This module will provide a comprehensive overview of the analytical strategies and techniques used in pharmacogenomics and explore some of the challenges and limitations in this field. The module will also provide an overview of the different type of pharmacogenomic biomarkers currently in use or emerging and the current feasibility of delivering `personalised medicine¿ in the clinic.